Useful Tips

How to grow mold at home?

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


Relevance.

I wondered why mold appears on food and decided to find out what mold is. Is mold harmful to humans? How is it formed? To answer these questions, I decided to conduct research.

Introduction

Mold and mold fungi secretly accompany us throughout the history of mankind, and it appeared much earlier than man himself. Despite a lot of scientific research, the active development of microbiology, rich statistical experience, mold remains one of the mysteries of our world, has not been fully studied and appears each time in a new quality. She kills and saves from death. In a clean room, each cubic meter of air contains up to 500 spores of mushrooms. Larger ones can cause allergies, small ones - pulmonary diseases, migraines, otitis media, bronchitis, rhinitis, asthma. Finally, mold toxins can build up in the body and lead to liver cancer. Of course, this is not the type of fungus that is used in the preparation of elite varieties of cheese and wine. The difference between them is like between a toadstool and a noble porcini mushroom. Opening a jar of jam, where a whitish film appeared on top, or cutting a greenish coating from the loaf, you are at great risk. Such a product is already completely affected by mold spores. You must immediately throw it away and try not to even breathe next to it. This micro-enemy is ready to use the slightest oversight to penetrate our body and try to destroy it.

Mold is harmful and beneficial.

Mold

"Harmful" "useful"

Harmful mold

Useful mold

cause dangerous diseases

spoil human food

cause death of animals

some types of fungi can cause diathesis in children, allergies that turn into asthma, and even cancer.

received medicine - penicillin, harmful to bacteria

these little workers help to get wines, noble cheeses

without mold there would not be a cycle of substances on Earth.

Composition of Hazardous Mold.

I examined what mold can be and found out that the first is useful and the second is dangerous. I want to dwell on dangerous mold.

Mold - These are microscopic mushrooms, there are over 300 thousand of their species. Each mushroom is a long thread and, as a rule, consists of three parts: - a root that penetrates deep into food, if it can, and which is often not visible with the naked eye, - a stem or branches that are visible on the surface, - spores that form on ends of branches.

Mold color is determined by spores. They are also carried through the air and in contact with other objects.

What foods can be saved from mold?

But there is no rule without exceptions. For example, with salami and dried ham, you can simply scrape away the mold and use it for food, as if nothing had happened. The same applies to hard cheeses - cut off the surface with harmful mold with a knife and about 2-3 centimeters of cheese "deep", discard them, and eat the cheese boldly. To use, after cutting the same 3 centimeters, you can also hard vegetables like cabbage, carrots or potatoes.

Scientists and mold.

The mess in Fleming's lab served him. In 1928, he discovered that on agar in one of the Petri dishes with bacteria Staphylococcus aureus a colony of molds has grown. Bacteria colonies around molds became transparent due to cell destruction. Fleming was able to isolate the active substance that destroys bacterial cells - penicillin, the work was published in 1929. Fleming did not expect it to be so difficult to obtain pure penicillin. His work was continued by Howard Flory and Ernst Boris Chain, who developed methods for cleaning penicillin. Mass production of penicillin was established during World War II. In 1945, Fleming, Flory, and Cheyne were awarded the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine.

Mold - MUCOR.

Mucor (lat. Mucor), also white mold - a genus of lower molds of the zygomycete class, which includes about 60 species. Widespread in the upper soil layer, also develop on food and organic residues. Some species cause diseases (mucoromycosis) of animals and humans, others are used to produce antibiotics or as starter cultures (as some mushroom fungi have high enzymatic activity). The mycelium is not divided by partitions and is represented by one giant multinucleated branched cell.

Practical work №1

Theme:Growing mold mucor at home.

Purpose: I want to see for myself how mold appears and grows on food.

Working process:

Growing mold on bread.

Pumpkin mold infection.

Observation of mold growth.

Examination of mold under a microscope.

As far back as last academic year, my teacher Angelina Nikolaevna suggested that I conduct this research work on a vegetable. With the help of my grandmother, during the summer holidays I grew a pumpkin.

Then I put a few slices of bread in bags and put them in a dark place in the kitchen.

After a week, mold formed on them.

My next step was to infect the pumpkin with mold. Wearing gloves, I made a small hole with a knife in the pumpkin. I rubbed the mold on the bread about the cut in the pumpkin and left it for a week.

A week later, the slice looked like this.

I cut the pumpkin into pieces.

A week later, the pumpkin looked like this.

I saw that a small fluff appeared, After four days, the hairs became larger. Black balls became visible on them, mold spots formed. After six days, mold spots increased and became black.

Two weeks passed.

In three weeks.

I examined the mold under a microscope.

Conclusion: I conducted my research work for 37 days, + time for its preparation.

I myself at home managed to grow mold - mucor. I carefully examined it under a microscope.

I came to the conclusion:

For the development of mold, humidity, heat, lack of ventilation are necessary. The higher the air temperature, the faster the appearance and development of mold. Dry air and low temperatures are the main obstacles to the development of mold. After conducting experiments, I can safely say that mold appears if there are factors such as heat, moisture and no airing. Mold fungi are dangerous to human health.

Conclusion

Mold - These are microscopic mushrooms, there are over 300 thousand of their species. Each mushroom is a long thread and, as a rule, consists of three parts - the root, which penetrates deep into the food, if it can and which is often invisible to the naked eye, - the stem or branches that are visible on the surface, - spores that form at the ends of the branches.

Performing this research work, I have studied a lot of literature containing information on this topic. In the course of the experimental part of the work, it was proved that the rate of mold formation depends on the following conditions: on air humidity and on the ambient temperature, on the products on which mold grows. I found out the importance of mold for human health and its impact on the ecology of the home.

Recommendations

Cover the prepared food with a film to protect it from mold spores from the air. Put perishable food from open cans in clean containers and refrigerate immediately. Do not leave perishable foods outside the refrigerator for more than two hours. Keep leftovers for no more than 3-4 days to prevent mold from growing.

How to handle moldy products?

Do not give mold a chance.

Do not buy many products and do not store their forgery.

But if something is still moldy? Do not smell the moldy product! This can cause respiratory illness.

If the whole food product is covered with mold - discard it by pre-wrapping it or placing it in a small plastic bag.

Throw it away! moldy products only in lockable trash containers.

Wash the refrigerator or cabinet immediately where the moldy product was.

Check nearby products. Mold instantly spreads on vegetables and fruits.

List of used sources and literature

1.Kudryashova A.A., Dedyukhina V.P. Microbiology, Sanitation and Hygiene: Publishing House DVGAEU, 2003.

2.Rabotnova I.L., General Microbiology, M., 2001.

3. Ismailova S. Encyclopedia for children vol. 2 Biology. M Avanta +, 1995.

How to create favorable conditions for growing mold?

In their structure, mold cells are similar to animal cells. Like any living microorganism, for successful reproduction, it requires food and a certain habitat.

  • Nutrition. Mushrooms cannot independently produce food, therefore, for normal life they need an external power source. In this, mushrooms are similar to representatives of the animal world. Mold can grow on virtually any food, especially starch-rich foods. Her favorite foods are baked goods, fruits and vegetables.
  • Air humidity. This criterion is of great importance for the normal functioning of fungi. Given that the mold has an external digestion, in dry air conditions it simply cannot absorb the nutrients it needs.
  • Air temperature. How to grow mold at home? Mushroom colonies prefer both wet and warm habitats. Like any living creature that has a cardiovascular system, mold also needs heat. Under favorable conditions, nutrients travel much faster through the cells.
  • Lighting. It is believed that colonies of mold fungi are sensitive to light and quickly die in lighted areas. In fact, this is because places well-lit by the sun are not wet. Direct sunlight is not an obstacle to the formation of most species of mushrooms.

Mold growth

Knowing how to grow mold, you can expand your horizons in the field of biology. Such practical exercises are especially useful for school children. They help them become closer to nature and clearly study the activities of living organisms. However, it should be remembered that disputes that a person inhales in the future can cause serious harm to his health. Therefore, before conducting the experiment, it is strongly recommended to be careful and use a protective mask and gloves.

How to grow mold?

The most suitable food is a piece of bread. One of the most common forms of mold, the well-known penicillin, grows well on it. Potato will be a good medium, it should be cut into small pieces without peeling, and boil over low heat for 30 minutes. You can also use most dairy products: cottage cheese, cheese.

Where to put food for mold?

How to grow mold and at the same time protect yourself from its negative effects? It is best to pick up a hermetically sealed container or glass jar. The container must be transparent so that you can freely observe the growth of mold without opening the lid. If there is no suitable container, then it is permissible to use a plastic bag, tying it tightly.

A suitable location should be selected for the container. It is advisable that this be a shaded corner, where the air temperature is close to + 23-25 ​​° C. Although some types of mold can live well in a fairly cool environment. To conduct such an experiment, you can put a container with pieces of food in the refrigerator.

Mold growing process

How to grow mold, where to start? Food intended for the colony of fungi must be placed in the container. It can be slightly moistened with water, using a spray bottle, then tightly close the lid or seal the bag and put it in a suitable place. However, it should be remembered that mushrooms need only a humid environment, and not water, therefore, it is still not worthwhile to wet the food with plenty.

Next, you need to daily evaluate the results of your work. If a piece of food has dried, you can gently open the container and spray it again with water. Do not neglect safety measures, some types of mold can be toxic, especially if a person is prone to allergies. It is not always possible to recognize mold immediately, at first it may be invisible, however, this does not mean that it does not exist. As a rule, a fungus that is not visible to the human eye appears on the next day. Do not be surprised that mold will appear in a hermetically sealed container. Her disputes are everywhere, and, therefore, in the air contained in the bank.

After 2-3 days, you can see a small spot, depending on the type of mold, it can be of different colors and shapes. Particularly curious is recommended to carefully study the appearance of a raid, make the appropriate entries in the observation log and take a picture. In the future, this will help in the study of other varieties of the fungus. You can observe the mold for several days, determining how quickly the area it occupies increases in size. After the material has been fully studied, the container with the remains of food must be disposed of without opening it.

Types of mold

Knowing how to grow mold, it is worth getting to know her better. Indeed, depending on the power source, the result of the experiment may be various mushrooms that are interesting to study.

  • The mold is black. This group includes many varieties and is the most common. It was from these fungi that antibiotics were first obtained. Some species are very dangerous for humans and, if ingested, can cause serious poisoning. You can try to grow black mold on vegetables or fruits.
  • The mold is green. The favorite food for fungi of this group is organic, therefore, most often it can be seen on the surface of the earth or in a pile of compost. Under favorable conditions, fungal colonies multiply rapidly, especially if the air is warm (about +25 ° C) and humid. This species can be obtained by growing on vegetables or fruits.
  • The mold is white. These fungi resemble a piece of cotton wool, some of them are absolutely safe for humans and are used to make cheeses. White mold - how to grow? Her favorite food is cheese, bread and pieces of wood.
  • The mold is pink. A relatively safe species, most often affects dead parts of the plant, fruits, vegetables, cereals and cereals.
  • The mold is blue. It is absolutely safe for humans, most often appears on the bark of trees. It is widely used for the preparation of noble varieties of cheese.
  • The mold is gray. There is a lot of danger in itself, if it is found in a dwelling, it must be immediately destroyed. It can affect both various materials and food.

Now, knowing a little more about mold, you can safely begin an experiment to grow it. However, if symptoms such as sneezing, lacrimation, coughing or general malaise appear while working with mold, the experiment should be stopped immediately and, in especially severe cases, seek medical help.

For the mold garden you need

  • Two large plastic containers (containers from the restaurant for takeaway are suitable)
  • Duct tape
  • Water
  • Two labels and pen
  • Slices of various products - it can be an orange peel, a banana peel, a slice of cheese, a few grapes, zucchini, a slice of bread or a slice of cake. (But do not use fish or meat, because in a few days they will begin to spread the stench)

Mold garden. What to do?

  1. Dip food into water, then put the food in one of the containers. Put the same set of products in a second container so that you can then compare them with each other.
  2. Close the containers with lids and seal them with duct tape so that no one accidentally opens them and does not eat the contents. Phew! Label each container with the words “Mold garden. DO NOT OPEN!". This is important because in some people, mold spores cause allergies.
  3. Put one container in the refrigerator, and leave the second at room temperature (but not in direct sunlight)
  4. Wait! Almost nothing will happen in the first three or four days. Then you will see the fluff growing on some products.
  5. Keep watching! Which products will start to deteriorate first? What color is the mold? Is there a difference between the two containers? (And it must be, because some types of mold grow better in the heat, some in the cold.) What foods rot faster than anyone? Are there any products that have not undergone mold or rot? Most likely, they will all be affected by mold, but foods high in salt, sugar, acid or preservatives will decompose much more slowly.
  6. Continue monitoring for approximately two weeks.
  7. When you finish the observation, discard the containers without opening them - maybe something otherworldy has grown up there!

Do you know that substances that prevent the growth of bacteria are called antibiotics. Today, many antibiotics are used to treat various infections. Первыми антибиотиками, использованными в медицинских целях, был пенициллин, который производится из пышной, окрашенной в сине-зеленый цвет плесени, которая называется пенициллиум.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send