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Muscle pain


Today, muscle pain is a very common syndrome, it is experienced not only by adult men and women, but also by adolescents. Myalgia is of different origins.

Pain arising in the fibrous structures - muscles, tendons, ligaments, etc., are referred to as fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia is the most common form of chronic myalgic syndromes. It was revealed that fibromyalgia is often accompanied by sleep disturbance. Note that a combination of pain, morning stiffness, asthenia and sleep disturbances is observed in more than 75% of patients.

Fibromyalgia can be of different localization, but the following areas are especially often affected:

  • nape
  • lower back (lumbago),
  • neck,
  • area of ​​the shoulder joints
  • rib cage,
  • hips near the knee joint.

Such pain is found mainly in women. It can be caused or exacerbated by physical or mental stress, sleep disturbances, trauma, dampness or cold, and sometimes systemic, usually rheumatic, diseases.

Primary fibromyalgia syndrome is especially common in young healthy women who are characterized by anxiety, exposure to stress and depression, as well as in adolescents, especially girls. Men are more susceptible to local fibromyalgia during overloads associated with work or sports.

Primary fibromyalgia is a form of damage to extraarticular soft tissues, characterized by diffuse musculoskeletal pain and the presence of specific painful points or points of hypersensitivity, determined by palpation.

Numerous studies have shown that 1-2% of the population of developed countries suffer from fibromyalgia, and there is a tendency to increase the proportion of this pathology among other rheumatic diseases.

A characteristic feature of the syndrome of primary fibromyalgia is the abundance and variety of complaints of the patient with a small number of objective signs of the disease. The main symptom of primary fibromyalgia is chronic diffuse musculoskeletal pain, which, as a rule, is combined with unpleasant sensations in the muscles.

Causes of muscle pain

The causes of muscle cramps are various. It can be all kinds of injuries when the muscle is tensed in response to pain. In addition, prolonged static stress can occur as a result of muscle spasm, for example, when a person is sitting at the computer incorrectly, a student at his desk, and carrying a bag on one shoulder.

When this tension is maintained for a long time, myocytes seem to "get used" to be in a state of stress, which leads to a violation of metabolic processes. And finally, emotional stress can lead to cramping.

Another common cause of myalgia is myositis - inflammation of muscle tissue. Myositis can occur as a complication of various diseases, such as flu. Among the causes of its occurrence are muscle injuries or their overstrain due to unusual physical activity.

In the acute period of injuries, muscle pain is reflex and is associated with excessive excitation of receptors located deep in the tissues. Muscle pains can be of vascular origin and occur when there is insufficient blood supply.

In this case, the increased needs of actively working muscles are not provided with the necessary amount of oxygen and nutrients. With myositis, aching pains appear in the muscles of the arms or legs, trunk, which intensify with movement.

Myalgia is often the initial symptom of polymyositis, in which muscle weakness further develops. Known rheumatic polymyalgia, which is characterized by pain and tension in the muscles of the neck, shoulder girdle, then extending to the pelvic girdle and leg muscles.

In addition, muscle pain can be a symptom of the following diseases:

Why do muscles hurt after training?

A delayed type of pain occurs with atypical loads for a person. Most often, it is experienced by beginners who try to perform many exercises on the first day of class.

It can also occur in athletes with experience that dramatically change the training plan. After heavy loads all muscles hurt. Such an atypical state is immediately interpreted as physical fatigue. It must be remembered that all unusual exercises always cause such a reaction. Small breaks occur inside the muscle fiber, that is, microscopic wounds form.

It is they that cause constantly increasing pain. Intensive recovery processes begin to occur in the body. Enhanced synthesis of protein, material for muscle growth, and the release of hormones are carried out. Muscle inflammation is not a pain at all, as it indicates that you have begun to increase muscle weight and volume.

Two to three weeks in the gym will help completely get rid of the state of discomfort and enter the rhythm. A well-designed program will help you plan your classes correctly. The training plan should be changed only once every 3-5 months.

If there is no late muscle pain, then you can increase the load and the intensity of the exercises. If all muscles are sore, on the contrary, you need to reduce the load and reduce the intensity of the exercises.

Throbbing and sharp pain can be an indication that you are injured. In this case, you must contact the trauma center to establish a diagnosis.

Also, a hematoma, bruising and various tumors can be a sign of injury. To avoid complications, you need to pay attention to any discomfort in the joints, for example, a crunch or snapping. Muscle malaise can be the cause of other diseases that require diagnosis.

Muscle pain treatment

The treatment of muscle pain depends primarily on the establishment of the cause of the disease.

Initially, they act with antipyretic drugs, which also have a sedative effect for a sick person. There are times when it is difficult to accurately diagnose muscle pain.

Then doctors use the method of narrowing the chain of symptoms, namely, prescribe anti-inflammatory drugs in the form of tablets. In acute unbearable pain, a non-narcotic analgesic should be taken, in the form of tablets and ointments, in more complex cases, intravenous injections.

If muscle pain is not treated for a long time, they can trigger the development of more serious diseases:

  • osteoarthritis
  • osteochondrosis,
  • intervertebral hernia,
  • arthralgia and others.

Drug treatment

Anti-inflammatory drugs and painkillers: indomethacin, diclofenac, analgin. The ointment for joints has excellent warming and anti-inflammatory properties, and their choice is mainly limited to such as finalgon, fastum gel. For grinding, menovasin, pepper tincture have a good effect.

Questions and Answers on the topic of "muscle pain"

Question:Hello! I am a girl and I am 14 years old. Three days ago, the muscles of my arms and legs started to hurt, as after an intensive training, pass sharply and then reappear. And after the lesson, physical education does not stop. Parents suggest that this could be the consequences of acclimatization, since I arrived from Moscow a week ago, but this was not the first time I had to fly there, but it wasn’t. What can it be and what treatment to use?

Answer: You need a full-time consultation with a neurologist.

Question:Hello. Muscle pains torment me. Which specialist will I contact? Thank.

Answer: If the injury, then to the traumatologist, if there are additional symptoms (temperature, weakness, etc.) - to the therapist, if only muscle pain - to the neurologist.

Question:Hello! On the left leg, the tibia and tibia were very ill. I am 42 years old, I live in a village, my weight is the same as my height. I lead a very active lifestyle. How to treat and what and what is the cause of pain? You need to move, but I can’t help because of pain. How can I be?

Answer: Hello. To make a diagnosis, you need to see a doctor, since it can be a question of both venous pathology and pathology of the musculoskeletal system.

Question:Hello. Periodically, sharp cramping pains occur in the muscles of the arms and legs of various localization. Mainly in the region of the thigh muscle and in the wrist joint. The pain lasts several seconds in one muscle, then begins in another. May be daily, may not be a few days. It all started with taking finlipsin, I don’t drink the drug for 2 months, the pain does not go away. What is it?

Answer: Hello. Perhaps a side effect of the drug. You need a full-time consultation with a neurologist.

Question:I am 26 years old. She contracted a sore throat and on the second day the neck and lower back muscles, weakness, temperature, and dizziness began to hurt. Please tell me, can these be complications?

Answer: Angina, of course, can lead to the development of complications, but in your case the symptoms that usually accompany this disease are described. Weakness, dizziness can be associated with fever, muscle pain is most often a manifestation of intoxication. Complications develop with improper and untimely treatment, but on the second day it is too early to talk about the likelihood of their development. You should urgently consult a doctor and begin adequate treatment, in this case, the risk of complications is significantly reduced.

Question:I am 21 years old and I am tormented by pain in my lower leg while running. A year ago, I worked out in the gym, rocked, weighed about 80 kg with a height of 180. I stopped training in the gym, and eventually began to gain weight. I stopped at 93 kg and realized that I needed to lose weight. I play football two or three times a week, but there were pains on the inside of the lower leg, near the bone, and the front muscles of the lower leg. Somewhere after 1-2 minutes, the muscles begin to get very tired and raising the foot becomes complicated. Usually, after a run, a place starts to hurt on the inside of the leg, just even when walking, as well as from touch, it takes a long time, about 4 days without running. All this applies to both the right and left foot. I believe that this is due to the large weight, maybe somehow I am not running like that. Thanks in advance for your reply.

Answer: In this case, it is recommended to consult a physician for a personal examination and examination: it is recommended to take a biochemical blood test, conduct an electromyography, to determine the cause of muscle weakness. Only after receiving the results of the examination, a specialist doctor will be able to make an accurate diagnosis and prescribe adequate treatment, as well as select the optimal diet that will help you adjust your weight.

Question:At first it all started with numbness of the big toe after sitting for about 15 minutes, a month later there was a slight pain in the calf, worked for 2 months with such pain, the pain began to intensify, there was no pain to bend, I couldn’t go through much, I had to stop so that the pain passes (only sitting), consulted a doctor. I’ve been treating for a month - injections (midocalm), pills (meloxicam) - have become a little easier, but severe pain does not go away, severe pain when walking appears in the calf muscle, pulling, when I tilt my head forward, it gives legs to the muscles. 1 month on sick leave, there was an operation in September 2011 to remove the uterus. 44 years old. How can I relieve such pain?

Answer: The causes of pain in the calf muscles are many, but the most common are atherosclerosis, thrombophlebitis, diseases of the spine and peripheral nerves. Parasitic diseases can also cause muscle pain: trichinosis, cysticercosis, toxoplasmosis. I recommend that you consult a doctor with a neurologist, phlebologist to conduct appropriate studies of the spine, peripheral nervous system, blood vessels. Only on the basis of the research results obtained, your doctor will be able to prescribe you adequate treatment.

Question:Hello! My uncle is in the hospital. He was put with gastritis, pancreatitis and cholecystitis, while he had a temperature of 37.6. Gastritis and pancreatitis have been cured, and the temperature continues to hold and rises from about 3 o'clock in the afternoon and until evening, by the morning it subsides, and he also has muscle pains. I did various tests, including blood for worms and bone marrow puncture - the results are good! Doctors can not understand what is the matter and make a diagnosis. What can it be and what tests need to be passed?

Answer: An increase in temperature indicates that the body has a focus of inflammation, and constant pain in the muscles may indicate prolonged intoxication. In this case, I recommend that you do a bacteriological analysis of blood and urine (bacterial culture), as well as an antibioticogram. In addition, I recommend that you do a chest x-ray. After determining the source of inflammation and its sensitivity to antibacterial agents, adequate treatment can be prescribed.

Serious symptoms that may indicate a life-threatening condition.

In some cases, muscle pain may occur in association with other symptoms that may indicate serious or life-threatening conditions, such as a heart attack (heart attack) or meningitis. It is urgent to see a doctor if there are any of these symptoms:

  • Changes in consciousness or attention, such as loss of consciousness or severe memory impairment
  • Changes in the mental state, for example, impaired perception of the environment
  • Chest pain radiating to the arm, shoulder, neck or jaw
  • Shortness of breath, shortness of breath
  • Inability to move anywhere in the body
  • Visual impairment (loss)
  • Lack of urine
  • Progressive weakness and numbness
  • Convulsive seizure
  • High neck stiffness

Cause of pain

Skeletal muscle pain is most often caused by direct trauma or trauma as a result of muscle strain or muscle strain. Muscle tension occurs when several muscle fibers are damaged, while when a muscle ruptures, a large number of muscle fibers rupture. A rupture (tear) of the tendon can also lead to pain in the muscles. Muscles and tendons have the ability to regenerate, but with a strong rupture of the muscle or tendon, an operational restoration of the integrity of the damaged structures is already required. Muscle pain can be caused by cramps resulting from overload or abnormal nerve impulses, which leads to excessive muscle contraction. In some cases, muscle pain can be a symptom of a serious or life-threatening condition, such as a heart attack, meningitis, or cancer.

Neuromuscular diseases and conditions

  • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Charcot's disease) is a severe neuromuscular disease that causes muscle weakness and leads to disability
  • Brain or spinal cord injury
  • Dermatomyositis (a condition characterized by muscle inflammation and skin rash)
  • Lyme disease (an inflammatory bacterial disease transmitted by ticks)
  • Multiple sclerosis (a disease that affects the brain and spinal cord and causes weakness, impaired coordination, balance and other problems)
  • Muscle destruction (rhabdomyolysis)
  • Muscle infections such as an abscess
  • Parkinson's disease (a disease of the brain that leads to impaired movement and impaired coordination)
  • Rheumatic polymyalgia (a disease characterized by muscle pain and stiffness)
  • Polymyositis (inflammation and muscle weakness)
  • Stroke

Other possible causes of muscle pain

Muscle pain can be caused by many other diseases and conditions, including:

  • Crayfish
  • Depression
  • Fibromyalgia
  • Angina pectoris or myocardial infarction
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Flu or other respiratory illnesses
  • Renal failure
  • Electrolytic disturbances (disturbances in the level of potassium or calcium in the blood).
  • Pregnancy
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Deficiency Vitamin B12 or Vitamin D

Medicines and substances that may cause muscle pain include:

  • ACE inhibitors (used to lower blood pressure)
  • Cocaine
  • Statins (cholesterol lowering drugs)

Questions that help determine the cause of muscle pain include:

  • Are there any other symptoms such as sore throat or fever?
  • Do you feel pain in one specific area or in the whole body?
  • How long does this condition last?
  • In what parts of the body are the pains localized?
  • What reduces pain or increases pain?
  • What medications are being taken now or recently

Potential muscle pain complications

Complications associated with muscle pain depend on the underlying disease or condition. For example, muscle pain associated with fibromyalgia or a degenerative disease can lead to decreased motor activity and related complications. Many skeletal muscle pains, however, respond well to treatment. However, if muscle pain prolonged and associated with a systemic disease, this can lead to the following complications, including such as:

  • Chronic pain
  • Immobility and its associated complications (such as pressure sores and thrombosis)
  • Persistent pain resistant to treatment
  • Amyotrophy
  • Muscle contracture
  • Persistent damage to muscles or nerves (most often due to compression of a nerve), including paralysis.
  • Decreased quality of life


Diagnosis of muscle pain (myalgia) is primarily based on a medical history and symptoms. Most muscle pains are associated with muscle tension (for example, due to improper posture or a sedentary lifestyle) or injuries (for example, sprains, bruises, or muscle soreness when playing sports). Instrumental methods of investigation, such as ultrasound or X-ray, CT, MRI, help confirm, or differentiate the cause of muscle pain.

Medical history (medical history).

The doctor will be interested in the type of pain, the localization of pain and the intensity of muscle pain. This information may be key to identifying the causes of leg pain. Information about the presence of muscle injuries, the presence of bruises, factors that lead to increased or decreased pain in the muscles or pain are very persistent, for example, with a herniated disc, the time the pain appears (day or night).

Inspection A doctor's examination allows you to determine the presence of painful areas, the presence of areas of skin discoloration, range of motion in muscles or joints, muscle strength, the presence of local pain in the tendon area or the definition of trigger points (for example, with fibromyalgia). In addition, reflex activity, sensitivity and other neurological tests are important, which makes it possible to detect the presence of neurological disorders. The time of onset of muscle pain is also relevant, since, for example, with osteoporosis or ankylosing spondylitis. Alcohol or drug abuse can be a possible cause of muscle pain, and information on this is important in determining the causes of muscle pain. Some medicines may also have side effects of muscle pain.

Laboratory research methods.

Blood tests can determine the presence of an inflammatory process or infections, autoimmune processes, biochemical tests can determine the violation of the functions of internal organs (for example, liver or kidneys).

Ultrasound examination (ultrasound). This research method allows you to visualize the presence of muscle inflammation (myositis) ruptures of muscles, tendons.

Such research methods as CT or MRI are necessary to visualize problems in deep muscles, where ultrasound examination is uninformative or, if necessary, visualization of neurological conditions or traumatic injuries. Electrophysiological research methods (EMG or ENMG) allow you to determine the presence of inflammatory or degenerative muscle diseases or impaired nerve conduction due to compression of the nerve roots or other neurological diseases.

A muscle biopsy is usually used as the last step to diagnose muscle diseases, and only if there are clear signs of such diseases.

The treatment for muscle pain depends on the cause of this symptom. Therefore, the most important factor determining the tactics of treatment is an accurate diagnosis. For example, if muscle pain is caused by taking certain drugs, then in such cases it is enough to stop taking these drugs or replace them with other medicines. Medication for muscle pain can include NSAIDs or analgesics, or even opiates.

Acute muscle pain

In acute muscle pain that occurs after an injury, rest and unloading are necessary, in some cases immobilization. In addition, local cooling with ice wrapped in a towel gives a good effect in such cases, which reduces swelling and inflammation of the pain. In addition, it is necessary to stop the load that led to muscle pain. It takes a lot of time to treat muscle injuries, since early recovery of normal loads can lead to chronic pain and lead to excessive scarring of muscle tissue, and in severe cases to the development of ossifying myositis.

Chronic muscle pain

Treatment for chronic pain may include the use of thermal procedures, as well as other treatment methods, such as:

  • Acupuncture and acupressure
  • Electrotherapy (therapy through electricity)
  • Electromyostimulation
  • Physiotherapy
  • Exercise therapy
  • Manual therapy

Systematic exercises (exercise therapy) are especially relevant when the cause of chronic pain is degenerative diseases of the spine, such as osteochondrosis, spondylosis, disc herniation.

Surgical treatment methods are used for severe traumatic muscle damage or in the presence of compression of the nerve roots.

Prevention of muscle pain consists in the following rules: maintaining a healthy lifestyle, sufficient physical activity, balanced nutrition, proper ergonomics of the workplace, elimination of alcohol abuse, smoking.

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